2012, ¹ 2





J. Experimental and Clinical Medicine, 2012, 2, pp.34-38


The aims and principles of radiation protection have been discussed. 

Radiation protection aims to prevent serious injury by keeping doses below thresholds for deterministic effects, and to limit the increased risk of stochastic effects, balancing the risk against the benefit. The three basic radiation protection principles are justification, optimisation and dose limitation.

No practice involving exposure to radiation should be adopted unless it produces at least sufficient benefit to the exposed individuals or to society to offset the radiation detriment it causes.

The dose to any individual from the source should be below an appropriate dose constraint, and all reasonable steps should be taken to adjust the protection so that exposures are “as low as reasonably achievable”, economic and social factors being taken into account.

A limit should be applied to the dose received by any individual as the result of all the practices to which he or she is exposed. This requirement is an obligation not to expose individuals to an unacceptable degree of risk.



2. Saakadze V., Tsimakuridze M., Zurashvili D., Khachapuridze N.,

Metreveli M., Baratashvili  R.

The clinical, allergological and immunogenetical peculiarities of occupational pathology caused by manganese

J. Experimental and Clinical Medicine, 2012, 2, pp.38-52


Department of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, Tbilisi State Medical University. For the first time in the medical history the clinical features, sensibilisation effect, immunogenetic characteristics and diagnostic methods of the pathology caused by small doses of manganese compounds have been described. Premanganism immunological status of chronic intoxication and peculiarities of immunological characteristics of pathologies caused by manganese, influence of parents’ work on children’s health has been researched in the last decade. Several perspective scientific research methodologies have been established in order to prevent different severe forms of occupational pathologies caused by manganese.


3. Gvineria I., Javakhadze R., Tsereteli M., Juruli M. , Saakadze V. ,

Khatiashvili N.

Problems of asbestos-related health effects in Georgia

J. Experimental and Clinical Medicine, 2012, 2, pp.52-55


N. Makhviladze Scientific-Research Institute of Labour Medicine and Ecology, Tbilisi, Georgia


The analyze of situation was made regarding reality of distribution of the asbestos-related health effects in Georgia. Authors identified the main pathways towards revealing asbestos related health effects.





4. Kverenchkhiladze R.G., Rokhva V.A., Rijhinashvili M.A., Chikovani A.A.,

Arabidze M.A., Kvatadze M.K., Kverenchkhiladze N.R., Tatalashvili N.S., Khvadagiani K.I.

Certain Peculiarities of the labour terms of the workers employed in the bread production (under subtropical climate)

J. Experimental and Clinical Medicine, 2012, 2, pp.55-57


Tbilisi State Medical University, Department of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine;

N.Makhviladze Scientific/Research Institute of Labour Medicine and Ecology, Tbilisi, Georgia


Comparative characteristics of working conditions off the staff employed at various types of bread production was made in Tbilisi, with consideration of potential impact of the Georgian dry sub-tropical climate and development of recreational facilities. Working conditions of almost all professionals recruited in the researched enterprises belong to 2nd hazardous degree of the 3rd class  (3.2 class). The conducted surveys developed bases for establishing recreational facilities. Their  implementation will improve employment terms, which  is the bases for maintaining and improving health conditions.


5. Khunashvili N., Kverenchkhiladze R., Kurashvili B., Tsimakuridze M.

Actual Nutritional condition of Tbilisi Metro employees

J. Experimental and Clinical Medicine, 2012, 2, pp.57-62


Environment, Health and Professional Medical Direction of Tbilisi State Medical University, Georgia


The index of  Actual  nutrition is studied  within the contingent of  Tbilisi Metro employees, who are influenced by harmful factors of different intensity. Imbalance of daily nutrition  ration  was stated as a violation of  relation of animals and plants ingredients  as in the structure of protein and fat components as well. Energetic cost of each examined person’s food ration is comparatively law than recommended optimal demands of given professional and age groups of workers. Received results  became the basis of processing appropriate recommendations for health improving  of the examined contingent of Tbilisi Metro employees.


6. Sh. Zarnadze, I. Zarnadze, T. Darsania, L. Lomtadze,

M. Kajrishvili, D. Kitovani

Nutrition problem and physical activity in child population

J. Experimental and Clinical Medicine, 2012, 2, pp.62-65


Unit of Nutrition and Aging Medicine of TSMU, Tbilisi, Georgia


Dietary supplements can play a meaningful role in helping sports consume the proper amount of calories, carbohydrate, and protein in their diet. However, they should be viewed as supplements to the diet, not replacements for a good diet. While it is true that most dietary supplements available have little scientific data supporting their potential role to enhance training and/or performance, it is also true that a number of nutrients and/or dietary supplements have been shown to help improve performance and/or recovery.

Incorporating good dietary practices as part of a training program is one way to help optimize training adaptations and prevent overtraining. The following overviews energy intake and major nutrient needs of active individuals.



7. B.Kurashvili, K.Sokhadze, G.Kverenchkhiladze, M.Tsimakuridze


J. Experimental and Clinical Medicine, 2012, 2, pp.65-67


Division of Nutrition and Age Medicine of the Department of Preventive Medicine and  Environmental Health of the Tbilisi state Medical University; National Agency of the   Ministry of Agriculture of Georgia, Tbilisi


Analyzed outcome of sanitary/epidemiological laboratory examination of foodstuffs carried out in the scope of National Program by the National Food Agency of the Ministry of Agriculture of Georgia during 2010-2011 years in some cities and regions of Georgia. Have been examined 798 samples of foodstuffs; among them 98 incidents of abnormality/breach have been found (12.3%). Quantity of abnormalities/breaches abundantly were recorded in 2011 – 78 out of 332 samples dissatisfied microbiological parameters (23.5%). Bacteriological analyze exposed conditionally pathogenous yeast and moldy fungus as well as intestinal bacteries but pathogenous flora, including salmonella, have not been revealed. We believe that principal reason of development of the mentioned situation is breach of sanitary-hygiene conditions in the foodstuffs producing enterprises as well as breach of prescribed manufacturing techniques and personal cleanliness of employees. On the grounds of disadvantaged outcome of sanitary-bacteriological laboratory research we recommend conformable controlling bodies to toughen sanitary-hygiene monitoring of foodstuffs on all stages of production, transportation and realization for identifying possible reasons of breach.



8. Gokieli N., Raminashvili D., Zarnadze Sh., Zarnadze I., Lomtadze L.,

Kajrishvili M., Kitovani D.

Development of Social and Medical Services under Social Undefended Population

J. Experimental and Clinical Medicine, 2012, 2, pp.67-69


Unit of Health Care Management, Policy and Economy, of TSMU, Tbilisi, Georgia


During last decade there have been many health reform efforts in Georgia, but out-of-pocket payments as a proportion of total health expenditure have remained stubbornly high, thus limiting access. Challenging vested interests in the medical establishment by rationalizing provision has thus far proved impossible. The constant flux of reform efforts has therefore served to weaken the health system. Service delivery is designed so that all people in a defined target population are covered, i.e. the sick and the healthy, all income groups and all social groups.


9. Mchedlishvili I., Chochishvili R.

Age  structure of patients with hepatitis C in Georgia

J. Experimental and Clinical Medicine, 2012, 2, pp.69-72


Public health department, Tbilisi State Medical University, Georgia


Age structure of patients with hepatitis C infection was studied in Georgia on the basis of the data for 2008-2010. This nozological entity takes the leading place in the morbidity with viral hepatitis. Its proportion composes 40,1% in the country and 56,0% – in Tbilisi. The majority of the cases are of 30-59 years old – 69,3%, followed by the youth of the ages 20-29 years (17,4%). Proportion of  hepatitis C in children under 14 is about 0,2%. Incidence rate is the highest in the middle ages – 74,5 per 100 000 population. Next place is taken by the age group 20-29 – 48,3. Incidence rate in children is only 0,5.


10. Eloshvili M.,  Mchedlishvili I.

Etiological structure of meningococcal infection in Georgia

J. Experimental and Clinical Medicine, 2012, 2, pp.72-75


Department of public health of Tbilisi State Medical University,

National Center For Disease Control and Public Health, Tbilisi, Georgia



Laboratory investigation of 45 patients with generalized form of meningococcal infection having being on treatment during 2009-2011, the diagnose was confirmed in 12 cases. N.meningitidis of serogroup C was isolated in 7 cases and of serogroup B in 5 cases. N.meningitidis of the same serogroups were isolated from patients with bacterial meningitis. According to the laboratory testing of nasopharyngeal samples collected from 117 contact persons of the cases, 15  were fount to be infected  with N. meningitidis, of which  7 with the serogroup C and 5 – with the serogroup B, in 3 cases it was impossible to determine a serogroup. Thus, at present time  N.meningitidis of the serogroups C and B are circulated in patients as well as in contacts in Georgia.




J. Experimental and Clinical Medicine, 2012, 2, pp.75-78


Tbilisi State Medical University, Natadze Scientific-Research Institute of Sanitary, Hygiene

and Medical Ecology


Development of Tourism is important and in some cases vital for many countries, Georgia among them. It brings in large amounts of income in payment for goods and services goods available, contributing an estimated 5% to the worldwide gross domestic product(GDP), and it creates opportunities for employment in the service industries associated with tourism but at the same time has the negative aspects on the environment and enhance the cultural integrity of local people. Therefore, as alternative to standard commercial tourism ecotourism is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile, pristine, and usually protected areas, was developed. Ecotourism has become one of the fastest-growing sectors of the tourism industry, growing annually by 10-15% worldwide. In frame of ecotourism Georgia has the great potential integrated health promotional and medical activities (Speleo tourism and Speleotherapy; Horse-riding Tourism and Equine Therapy; Vine Tourism and Vine Therapy/Enotherapy; Spa-Tourism and Spa Therapy/Balneotherapy. Medical Promotion of Tourism/Ecotourism is one of the priorities for action of Natadze Institute of Sanitation, Hygiene and Medical Ecology. It means ecotoxicology, radioecology and bio safety monitoring of related indicators  and hygienic expertise of domestic and imported products.  Collaboration with Center of Curortology and Medical Tourism is very important issue for next development spa towns.


12. Tukvadze Sh.,  Kverenchkhiladze R.,  Kvanchaxadze R.

The possibility of using zinc fortified products in vegetarian people’s diet

J. Experimental and Clinical Medicine, 2012, 2, pp.78-81


Department of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine

Tbilisi State Medical University, Georgia


Publication outlines modern aspects of zinc deficiency worldwide. World Health Organization (WHO) data (2004) suggests that zinc deficiency is expected to be widespread, mainly in developing countries, and Georgia is not exception.   Micro elements are essential part of  nutrition. Micronutrients are nutrients required by humans throughout life in small quantities to orchestrate a whole range of physiological functions, but which the human body itself cannot produce. Among them particular importance is attached to those micro elements that are comparatively in low quantity in the food (such as zinc, iron, iodine), Accordingly occurrence of the zinc deficiency,  iodine deficiency, iron deficiency  in vegetarians, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women requires particular attention so that they are duly prevented. Misbalance of micronutrients in the diet can eventually lead to zinc iodine, and/or iron deficiency. The groups that appear to be most commonly affected by zinc deficiency are  vegetarians. Because of the low bioavailability of zinc from plant foods and until zinc is better understood, vegetarians should strive to meet or even exceed the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for this unique mineral. Many tools are available to help vegetarians maintain an adequate nutrient balance including food supplements.  The dietary guidelines for Americans states, “Different foods contain different nutrients and other healthful substances. No single food can supply all the nutrients in the amount you need”.  We have already evaluated effectiveness of zinc fortified tea in zinc deficient adolescents. Now our goal is, evaluation of effectiveness in correction of zinc deficiency in vegetarians, by administering fortified tea product.

Zinc deficiency is more common than previously thought. In fact, you may be experiencing some zinc deficiency symptoms yourself!


13. Tsibadze A., Janashia K., Tvildiani L., Tabidze G.

Heliogeophysical processes and protection of magneto-sensitive individuals

J. Experimental and Clinical Medicine, 2012, 2, pp.81-84


TSMU, Helio-Magnetocardiology Center, TSU, Tbilisi, Georgia


Clinical appraisal of an active magnetocompensational technology for a detection of an effectiveness of magnetosensitive individual’s complex management. It is determined that placing of magnetosensitive patients during geomagnetic storms in the magnetocompensated wards considerably diminishes basic indices of diseases’ complications: cardiac pain, ECG alterations, variations of systemic blood pressure and incidences of different arrhythmias. Magnetocompensated wards in combination with basic therapy can be used with success for a treatment and a prevention of magnetolabile individuals.


14. Gagoshidze G., Mirvelashvili E.,  Tkeshelashvili B.

Distribution of risk-factors affecting rate of congenital disorders in pregnant women in Tbilisi (2010-2011)

J. Experimental and Clinical Medicine, 2012, 2, pp.84-87


Tbilisi State Medical University, Public Health Department, Georgia


Congenital disorders substantially cause the death of the newborn, increase the rate of mortality and deteriorate the health indicators of society. It is crucial to know the factors affecting development of congenital disorders. The aim of our study was to find out the distribution of the risk-factors affecting the rate of congenital disorders. 323 pregnant women were inquired. The study revealed that the risk-factors of congenital disorders are not equally distributed in pregnant women. The most frequently there are cases of breaking nourishment regimes, utilizing carbohydrate rich diet and sweets; Quite frequently there are cases of smoking, admitted anonymously. Statistic data of the material showed that distribution among the groups according to outcome and predictors were different. It was revealed significantly reliable correlation between congenital disorders and breaking nourishment regimes.




J. Experimental and Clinical Medicine, 2012, 2, pp.87-90


Georgian Technical University, Tbilisi, Georgia


In the first time were investigated underground and aerial parts (leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds and roots) of Rubus caesius L. growing in Georgia. There were reported recipes of using R. caesius in folk and science medicines. From blackberry were prepared confectionery, water and water-alcohol extracts.


16. Burkadze N., Isakadze A., Noniashvili M.

 Tobacco  and the risk of developing  heart ischemic disease

J. Experimental and Clinical Medicine, 2012, 2, pp.90-93


The Science Academy Preventive Medicine.  TSMU  Departament of Therapy, Tbilisi, Georgia


In the study it is discussed the results of-2 stage research, which was implemented during 5 years, in organized and unorganized population. By the  epidemiological method of research it was studied the influence of  smoking on development of hypertension and heart ischemic disease.

The data on smoking is the highest in the age of 20-39 , somewhat reduces at age 40-50 and two times more in senior age group. The ¼ part of men have never smoked. This indicator doesn’t change with age. While the number of persons, who gave up smoking decreases with age. Nearly six of every woman is smoking at the age 20-69. In addition the fifth woman of reproductive age and the fourth woman are smoking. The 60 percentage of women have never smoked. The number of women who gave up smoking at the age of 20-39 is limited. The next age group the number reduced. The risk of developing heart disease is 3 times higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. The smoking is the main risk factor in developing the heart disease. The results of 5 years prospective research  shows that the risk of mortality in ischemic heart disease at the age of 40-59  has increased 2-3 times in smokers than in nonsmokers. The risk of developing hypertension increased 1.5 times and 2 times among them   who smokes 20 cigarettes and more. In smokers it is revealed lipid metabolism disorders, and a high rate of cholesterol and triglycerides in blood.

Conclusion: the results of our research shows, that smoking significantly increases the risk of ischemic heart disease in men at the age of 40-59 (approximately 3 times). Smoking is a main risk factor in developing  heart disease, at the same time it contributes to strengthening of other risk factors.


17. Isakadze A., Noniashvili M., Burkadze N.

Geriatric Aspects of Coronary Heart Disease With Concomitant  Chronic Obstructuve Lung Disease

J. Experimental and Clinical Medicine, 2012, 2, pp.93-96


The Science Academy Preventive Medicine, TSMU Departament of  Therapy, Tbilisi, Georgia


The data are  presented on the  incidence and  the course of coronary  heart  disease (CHD)  in senior group patients with concomitant chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD). The clinical symptomatology  in  the given case differs in some respects from the classical concepts of the conventional course of the disease under consideration. The concomitant COLD show, in a patients with considerable number of cases, (21,9%), an asymptomatic course of CHD. Among the patients with the angina pectoris syndrome, the proportion of the patients with functional class I angina pectoris is relatively low. Among such patients, there predominate subjects with a brief history of CHD (lasting less than 5 years). The incidence of the arrhythmic patterns of CHD (paroxysmal or constant atrial fibrillation, stable ventricular premature heart beat of high brades) is not great either. The clinical  interrelations between CHD and COLD when combined are characterized, as a rule, by the fact  that exacerbation  of one of the diseases is accompanied by regression of the symptoms of  the concomitant pathology  that  withdraws as if to the background. The data obtained appear to  suggest  that the  given  group of the patients require a goal-oriented instrumental examination (exercise tests, EGO-monitoring, etc.) followed by administration of adequate coordinated drug treatment.   


18. Gongadze N., Gabunia L., Gogolauri M., Mirziashvili M.

Central Modulatory Influence of Bisoprolol and Propranolol on the Homeostatic regulation of circulation and current of arrhythmias in Experimental Acute Ishemic Condition

J. Experimental and Clinical Medicine, 2012, 2, pp.96-101


Departament of Medical Pharmacology, Tbilisi State Medical University, Georgia


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the central modulatory effects of bisoprolol (B) and propranolol (P) on cardiovascular parameters, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and the severity of ventricular aarhythmias (VA) occurring during myocardial acute ischemic-reperfusion injury (MIRI) in anaesthetized Wistar rats. Animals were divided into the seven groups: I – Control group; II – Coronary artery short lasting (5 min) occlusion, which followed by reperfusion (20 min), “test-ischemia” (25 min) and recurrent reperfusion; III – “Test-ischemia” (1h) followed by reperfusion; IV- Preliminary central administration of B (into lateral Ventricle) in dose 100mcg/10mkl volume 30 min before coronary artery occlusion to rats with MIRI model for II group; V- preliminary central administration of B by the same way and dose to rats with MIRI for III group; VI and VII groups – with central administration of P in identical dose, way and MIRI models using for B. It was established that MIRI in rats was accompanied after initial increasing by reducing of arterial pressure, BRS and by high incidence of VA that more markedly revealed in animals with III model of MIRI. B and especially P greatly attenuated the number and duration of VA in rats with MIRI and caused the significant decrease of blunting of BRS. In addition P exerts the preventive effect against developing of ventrivular fibrillation. Our results suggested a possible beneficial central effects of B and P on MIRI  and homeostatic mechanisms of circulation.


19. Chikviladze D., Metreveli D., Mikeladze M., Gachechiladze  Kh.

On the antibioticoresistancy of the nosocomial  E.coli strains

J. Experimental and Clinical Medicine, 2012, 2, pp.101-103


Tbilisi State Medical University. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Georgia.


Escherichia coli is one the main nosocomial pathogens. Recently antibiotic resistance of the pathogen has grown considerably. During our study resistance of 71 strain of nosocomial E. coli isolated from patient admitted to Tbilisi hospitals in 2006-2010 was studied. Amikacin, amoxacillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefepime, cefotaxime/clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, doripenem, co-trimoxazole, ertapenem, fosfomycin, gentamicin, imipenem, levofloxacin, meropenem, netilmicin, moxifloxacin, piperacillin, ticarcilin/clavulanic acid were tested. Carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem, doripenem) showed the maximal activity.





J. Experimental and Clinical Medicine, 2012, 2, pp.103-106


Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Petre MelikiSvili Institute of Physical and Organic Chemistry, Tbilisi, Georgia


Mandarin belongs to the genus Citrus, which is originally cultivated in China. Only in 19th century it is introduce in Georgia. Over 150 components have already been identified in mandarin peel oil (MPO). Main components of MPO are limonene and other terpenes. Oxygenated compounds like linalool, decanal, sinensal and methyl-N- methyl antranitate have the highest contribution to the aroma fraction. Important classes of high-boiling compounds found in MPO are complex molecules like flavonoids and waxes. β-carotene, which is used as natural food colorant is the pigment found in the outside surface of the mandarin.

Supercritical fluid extraction of MPO have shown good yield results in composition with other extraction processes, it makes possible extraction of  MPO and β-carotene in two steps by using different operating condition and co-solvents.


21. Katamadze N., Beridze S.*

Cardiac-Vascular Disease and Fabry Syndrome

J. Experimental and Clinical Medicine, 2012, 2, pp.106-108


Direction of Internal Diseases, *Directon of Public Health, TSMU, Tbilisi, Georgia


Fabry-Anderson-Syndrome - Lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A and resulting in an accumulation of globotriaosylceramide in the renal and cardiovascular systems. The disease is X-linked and is characterized by telangiectatic skin lesions, renal failure, and disturbances of the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems. Cardiac manifestations are so standard that making proper diagnostics is very complicated and often requires the cardiologists’ and genetists’ working together. Fabry-Anderson- disease is suspicious if hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is mixed with the following clinical manifestations: microalbuminuria, proteinuria and kidney chronic failure of unknown etiology; early insult (till 55 of age); angioceratoma (especially in lower third of abdomen, groin area and buttocks); arterial hypertension; acroparesthesias, cold and heat intolerance, frequent burning or freezing; hypohidrosis; vision and/or audio disorders; loaded anamnesis. Diagnostics is of crucial importance as it gives the possibility to manage this incurable disease (with α-Galactosidase A, created by genetic engineering).


22. Matiashvili K., Manjavidze N., Ghonghadze T.

Assesment of early age  healthy Georgian children‘s physical and neuropsychological development

J. Experimental and Clinical Medicine, 2012, 2, pp.108-112


Department of  Pediatrics, Tbilisi State Medical University, Georgia


The physical, motor and psychosocial development has been studied in healthy Georgian children and in early age children (3-24 months old) who lack the family environment. Neurological (N), Receptive (R), Expressive (E) and Cognitive (C) functions were assessed by BINS( Bayley  Infant Neurodevelopment Screener ). Comparing to the norm given by BINS, analyses of the variances shows a significant difference of median sum indicators in all age groups.Depression of expressive and cognitive functions are mainly the reason of this difference, which can be defined by the incorrect management of social adaptive steps. In case of deprivation syndrom, in children who lack parent care there was the evidence of delayed development. The indicators of neurological clusters were decreased; expressive and cognitive functions show significant impairment.



23. Chabashvili N., Sopromadze Z., Svanishvili T., Tataradze E.




J. Experimental and Clinical Medicine, 2012, 2, pp.112-115


Tbilisi State Medical University, Department of Medical Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine, Georgia


During the medical control of athletes, regardless their qualification level, priority should be given to submaximal PWC170-test, which provides extended information about physical working capacity of athletes. Athletes with high PWC170values demonstrate better response during functional investigation of cardiovascular system as well, compared to athletes with low PWC170 values.




J. Experimental and Clinical Medicine, 2012, 2, pp.115-121


National Tuberculosis Center, *Scientific-Pharmaceutical Company “Camelyn”, Tbilisi, Georgia


The main character of active substances of a preparation  Camelyn-M1 are high bioavailability, wide volume of distribution, low linkage with  serum of proteins, good penetration into bodies and macroorganism cells, prolonged circulation in an organism, and elimination by nephritic and extra-nephritic mechanisms. The height of concentration of a preparation in plasma comes between 60-90 minutes and is characterized as quickly soaking preparation. Bioavailability of  Camelyn-M1, at intramuscular administration makes up 98%.

The substances of Camelin-M1 are transformed in an organism. The quantity of formed metabolites fluctuates from 2 to 4 and a number of metabolites possess some antibacterial activity